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Titration is a technique that enables you to determine the precise concentration of everything. In practice, you need a large range of products that Avantor® can provide, including classic glassware, automatic titrators, reagents and other equipment and accessories.

Titration | Avantor

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How many types of reactions are involved in titrimetric analysis?

There are four types of reactions:

  1. Acid-base titration
    Hydrogen ions are transferred from acid to base or hydroxide ions from base to acid, thus bringing about neutralization. The stronger the base or acid, the more well-defined the end-point of the reaction becomes.
  2. Precipitation titration
    In this method, the component to be determined is usually precipated by the titrating agent in the form of an insoluble compound. The end-point can be determined by the appearance of a clear solution or by measuring the conductivity
  3. Complexation titration
    Here, ions combine with other ions or molecules to form soluble complexes that show little dissociation
  4. Redox titration
    In this method, electrons are transferred from reducing agents to oxidation agents
What is an indirect titration?

We can find 3 types of indirect titration:

  1. Back titration
    A defined volume of excess reagent solution is added to the sample solution. Once the reaction is complete, the unreacted reagent solution is titrated using a second reagent solution 
  2. Indirect titration
    The substance to be determined doesn’t react directly with the reagent solution but indirectly via the intermediate of a stoichiometric reaction with an another titrable substance
  3. Substitution titration
    In this method, a substance is added to the sample whereby the latter reacts stoichiometrically, whilst releasing a component of the added substance. This component is then titrated directly.
What is analyzed using this titration method?

Due to its versatility, volumetric analyses can be used for the determination of a large number of organic and inorganic compounds. Titration is often described for the determination of content in standard works of reference such as pharmacopoeias, DIN references, ASTM or food analysis methods.

What are the advantages of the titration method?

This method is one of the oldest and most frequently used methods for quantitative analysis.

  • Low cost of apparatus
  • Simple working procedures
  • Ease of automation
  • Quick analysis 
  • Excellent reproducibility
  • Accuracy of the results
What volumetric solution packs are available?

Three different packs are available:

  • Ampoules Convol NORMADOSE
    These concentrated solutions for the preparation of volumetric solutions are supplied in glass or plastic ampoules produced in such way that the precisely dosed content can be quantitatively transferred to a volumetric flask. They represent an economical and space-saving alternative to ready to use solutions and have a long shelf life in unopened ampoules.
  • Classic bottles from 100 ml to 25 l
    The large majority of the "ready to use" solutions are packed in plastic bottles. The most commonly used small pack is the 1 l bottle. Compared to ampoules, the main advantages for such packaging are a better accuracy and no risk of mistake during the preparation.
  • Bag in box
    For large volumes, we can supply 10 or 5 l bag in box packaging. Here, air-free filling with withdrawal from the cubitainer ensure that the quality of the volumetric solution is not affected until the last drop.
Can you produce customized solutions?

Yes, we have created a custom manufacturing service to produce the wished solution.

Learn more.

What does NIST traceability mean?

NIST traceable calibration is an assurance program that certifies that a laboratory or manufacturer is fully equipped to calibrate equipment to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards and that any products offered by that manufacturer will match those NIST-maintained measurement standards.

Why are reference standards so important?
  • The titer of volumetric solutions can drift, so periodic verification is advisable, especially for extremely diluted solutions. Using these reference standards provides peace of mind and integrity of results. Traceable to NIST
  • High purity
  • Supplied with Certificate of Analysis for quality assurance
  • Glass packs in opaque cardboard box to prevent deterioration due to light